Laboratory of Visual Psychophysiology 

Department of Psychology 

Hunter College, City University of New York 

695 Park Avenue 

New York, New York 10065 


James Gordon, Ph.D., Director

Valerie Nunez


Chloe Brittenham


Yanli Yin


Max Economos


Maria Segovia


Lital Twizer


Edouard Victor


Wai Man Wong


Danelly Rodriguez


Ashley Rosemond




Research Interests


Visual Psychophysiology. We are interested in the processing of color and form information by the visual system. Recent work has focused on the nature of the parallel pathways in humans which are responsible for encoding and transmitting this information, and on the development of these pathways from infancy through adulthood. Psychophysical experiments utilize hue scaling and chromatic adaptation to isolate chromatic and luminance pathways, while physiological studies use the visual evoked potential to study the development of these pathways in humans.

Representative Lab Publications


Zemon, V. & Gordon, J. (2018) Quantification and Statistical Analysis of the Transient Visual Evoked Potential to a Contrast-Reversing Pattern: A Frequency-Domain Approach. European Journal of Neuroscience 48(4), 1765-1788. DOI: 10.1111/ejn.14049.


Nunez, V., Shapley, R.M. & Gordon, J. (2018) i-Perception. Cortical double-opponent cells in color perception:Perceptual Scaling and chromatic visual evoked potentials. 9, 1-16.


Nunez, V., Shapley, R.M. & Gordon, J. (2017) Journal of Vision. Nonlinear dynamics of cortical responses to color in the human cVEP. 17 (11), 9-13. doi: 10.1167/17.11.9.


Siper, P. M., Zemon, V., Gordon, J., George-Jones, J., Lurie, S., Zweifach, J., Tavassoli, T., Wang, A. T., Jamison, J., Buxbaum, J. D., & Kolevzon, A. (2016). Rapid and Objective Assessment of Neural Function in Autism Spectrum Disorder Using Transient Visual Evoked Potentials. PLoS ONE., 11, 1-15. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0164422.


Xing, D., Ouni, A., Chen, S., Sahmoud, H., Gordon, J. & Shapley R.M. (2015) Brightness-Color Interactions in human early visual cortex. Journal of Neuroscience. 35 (5), 2226-2232. doi: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.3740-14.2015.


Xing, D.1., Yeh, C.I., Gordon, J. & Shapley R.M. (2014) Cortical brightness adaptation when darkness and brightness produce different dynamical states in the visual cortex. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. .111(3):1210-5. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1314690111. Epub 2014 Jan 7.


Weinger, P.M. , Zemon, V., Soorya, L., and Gordon, J. (2014) Low-contrast response deficits and increased neural noise in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder. Neuropsychologia. 63, 10-18. DOI: 10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2014.07.031


Krinsky-McHale , S.J., Silverman, W., Gordon, J., Devenny, D.A., Oley, N. and Abramov, I. (2013) Vison Deficits in Adults with Down Syndrome. 
 Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities. Online. doi:10.1111/jar.12062.
Abramov, I., Gordon, J., Feldman, O. & Chavarga, A. (2012) Sex & Vision I: Spatio-temporal Resolution. Biology of Sex Differences, DOI: 10.1186/2042-6410-3-20.
Abramov, I., Gordon, J., Feldman, O. & Chavarga, A. (2012) Sex and Vision II: Color Appearance of Monochromatic Lights. Biology of Sex Differences, DOI: 10.1186/2042-6410-3-21.

Garcia-Quispe, L., Gordon, J., & Zemon, V. (2009) Development of contrast mechanisms in humans: A VEP study. Optometry and Vision Science. 86, 708-716.


Abramov, I., Gordon, J and Chan, H. (2009) Color appearance: properties of the Uniform Appearance Diagram derived from hue and saturation scaling. Perception and Psychophysics, 71, 632-643.


Abramov, I., and Gordon, J. (2008) Color Vision Panel Tests: A Metric for Interpreting Numeric Analytic Indices. Optometry and Vision Science, 86, 146-152.


Gordon, J. & Abramov, I. (2008) Color Appearance: Maxwellian vs. Newtonian Views. Vision Research, 48, 1879-1883.


Zemon, V., Tsai, J.C., Forbes, M., Al-Aswad, L.A., Chen, C.M., Gordon, J., Greenstein, V.C., Hu, G., Strugstad, E.C., Dhrami-Gavazi, E., & Jindra, L.F. (2008) Novel electrophysiological instrument for rapid and objective assessment of magnocellular deficits associated with glaucoma. Documenta Ophthalmologica, 117, 233-243..


Abramov, I. & Gordon, J. (2006) Development of color vision in infants. In R. Duckman (ed.) Visual Development, Diagnosis, and Treatment of the Pediatric Patient, 137-162. Baltimore: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.


Zemon, V. & Gordon, J. (2006) Luminance Contrast Mechanisms in Humans: Visual Evoked Potentials and a Nonlinear Model. Vision Research. 46, 4163-4180.


Gordon, J. & Shapley, R. (2006) Brightness contrast inhibits color induction: Evidence for a new kind of color theory. Spatial Vision, 19, 133-146.


Abramov, I. & Gordon, J. (2005) Seeing unique hues. Journal of the Optical Society of America A, 22, 2143-2153.


Williams, P.E., Mechler, F., Gordon, J., Shapley, R., & Hawken, M.J. (2004) Entrainment to video displays in primary visual cortex of macaque and humans. Journal of Neuroscience, 24, 8278-8288.


Gordon, J. (2004) Measuring Red or Yellow or Green or Blue. In M. Fehr & S. Wurmfeld (eds.) Seeing Red: On Nonobjective Painting and Color Theory, 164-186. Cologne: Salon Verlag.


Scuello, M., Abramov, I, Gordon, J., & Weintraub, S. (2004) Museum lighting: Why are some illuminants preferred? Journal of the Optical Society of America A, 21, 306-311.


Gordon, J. and Abramov, I. (2001) Color vision. In E.B.Goldstein (ed.), The Blackwell Handbook of Perception, 92-127. Oxford: Blackwell.


Hall, E.C., Gordon, J., Abel, L., Hainline, L., & Abramov, I. (2000) Nystagmus waveforms in blindness. Visual Impairment Research. 2, 65-73.  


Hall, E.C., Gordon, J., Hainline, L., Abramov, I., & Engber, K. (2000) Childhood visual experience affects adult voluntary ocular motor control. Optometry and Vision Science,77, 511-523.


Zemon, V., Hartmann, E.E., Gordon, J. and Prunte-Glowazki, A. (1997) An electrophysiological technique for assessment of the development of spatial vision. Optometry and Vision Science, 74, 708-716.


Ciali, S., Gordon, J., and Moller, P. (1997) Spectral sensitivity of the weakly discharging electric fish Gnathonemus petersi using its electric organ discharges as the response measure. Journal of Fish Biology, 50, 1074-1087


Abramov, I. and Gordon, J. (1997) Constraining color categories: the problem of the baby and the bath-water. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 20, 179-180.


Zemon, V., Eisner, W., Gordon, J., Grose-Fifer, J., Shoup, H., and Tenedios, F. (1995) Contrast-dependent responses in the human visual system: Childhood through adulthood. International Journal of Neuroscience, 80,181-201.


Gordon, J., Abramov, I., and Chan, H. (1994) Describing color appearance: Hue and saturation scaling. Perception and Psychophysics, 35, 2999-3010.


Abramov, I., and Gordon, J. (1994) Color appearance: on seeing red - - or yellow, or green, or blue. Annual Review of Psychology, 45, 451-485.


Grose-Fifer, J., Zemon, V., and Gordon, J. (1994) Temporal tuning and the development of lateral interactions in the human visual system. Invest. Ophthal. and Vis. Sci. , 35, 2999-3009.


Zemon, V., Pinkhasov, E. and Gordon, J. (1993) Electrophysiological tests of neural models: Evidence for nonlinear binocular interactions in humans. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science, 90, 2975-2978.


Zemon, V., Pinkhasov, E. and Gordon, J. (1992) Models of human binocular vision assessed neurophysiologically and psychophysically. Proc. 1st Regional Control Conference of the IEEE. 68-72.


Abramov, I., Gordon, J. and Chan, H. (1992) Color appearance across the retina: effects of a white surround. Journal of the Optical Society of America A, 9, 195-202.


Chan, H., Abramov, I. and Gordon, J. (1991) Large and small color differences: Predicting them from hue scaling. Proc. SPIE, 1453, 381-389.


Abramov, I., Gordon, J. and Chan, H. (1991) Color appearance in the peripheral retina: effects of stimulus size. Journal of the Optical Society of America A, 8, 404-414.


Abramov, I., Gordon, J. and Chan, H. (1990) Using hue scaling to specify color appearance and to derive color differences. Proc. SPIE, 1250, 40-51.


Gordon, J. and Abramov, I. (1988) Scaling procedures for specifying color appearance. Color Research and Application, 13, 146-152.


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